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Clinical Studies

Proceptin® is a result of over 60 research studies addressing the role of metabolic intermediaries, anti-oxidants and amino acid precursors in male reproduction. Provided below are a variety of the studies that have looked at the role of nutritional supplements improving sperm parameters.

  1. Balercia G, Arnaldi G, Fazioli F, et alt.: Coenzyme Q10 levels in idiopathic and varicocele-associated asthenozoospermia. Andrologia. 2002 Apr;34(2):107-11.
  2. Bayer R. Treatment of infertility with vitamin E. Int J Fertil 1960; 5:70–8.
  3. Bentivoglio G, Melica F, Cristoforoni P: Folinic acid in the treatment of human male infertility. Fertil Steril. 1993 Oct;60(4):698-701.
  4. Chen JC, Chen LD, Tsauer W, et al.: Effects of Ginsenoside Rb2 and Rc on inferior human sperm motility in vitro. Am J Chin Med. 2001;29(1):155-60.
  5. Chen JC, Xu MX, Chen LD, et al.: Effect of panax notoginseng extracts on inferior sperm motility in vitro. Am J Chin Med. 1999;27(1):123-8.
  6. Costa M, Canale D, Filicori M, et alt.: L-carnitine in idiopathic asthenozoospermia: a multicenter study. Italian Study Group on Carnitine and Male Infertility. Andrologia. 1994 May-Jun;26(3):155-9.
  7. Dandekar SP, Nadkarni GD, Kulkarni VS, et al.: Lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes in male infertility. J Postgrad Med. 2002 Jul-Sep;48(3):186-89; discussion 189-90.
  8. Dawson EB, Harris WA, Powell LC. Relationship between ascorbic acid and male fertility. In: Aspects of Some Vitamins, Minerals and Enzymes in Health and Disease, ed. GH Bourne. World Rev Nutr Diet 1990; 62:1–26 [review]
  9. Dawson EB, Harris WA, Teter MC, et alt.: Effect of ascorbic acid supplementation on the sperm quality of smokers. Fertil Steril. 1992 Nov;58(5):1034-9.
  10. Fraga, C.G., Motchnik, P.A., Shigenaga, M.K., Helbock, H.J., Jacob, R.A., and Ames, B.N. Ascorbic Acid Protects Against Endogenous Oxidative DNA Damage in Human Sperm. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Dec. 1991; 88: 11003-11006.
  11. Gagnon, C., Iwasaki, A., Lamirande, E.D., and Kovalski, N. Reactive Oxygen Species and Human Spermatozoa. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1991; 637: 436-44.
  12. Geva, Bartoov B, Zabludovsky N, et al. The effect of antioxidant treatment on human spermatozoa and fertilization rate in an in vitro fertilization program. Fertil Steril 1996; 66:430–4.
  13. Goverde HJ, Dekker HS, Janssen HJ, Bastiaans BA, Rolland R, Zielhuis GA: Semen quality and frequency of smoking and alcohol consumption - an explorative study. Int J Fertil 1995; 40:135–8.
  14. Halliwell, B. Reactive Oxygen Species in Living Systems: Source, Biochemistry, and Role in Human Diseases. The American Journal of Medicine, Sept. 30, 1991; 91: 3C-14S--3C-22S.
  15. Hunt CD, Johnson PE, Herbel JoL, Mullen LK. Effects of dietary zinc depletion on seminal volume and zinc loss, serum testosterone concentrations, and sperm morphology in young men. Am J Clin Nutr 1992; 56:148–57.
  16. Isoyama R, Kawai S, Shimizu Y, et al.: Clinical experience with methylcobalamin (CH3-B12) for male infertility Hinyokika Kiyo. 1984 Apr;30(4):581-6. Japanese.
  17. Iwanier K, Zachara BA: Selenium supplementation enhances the element concentration in blood and seminal fluid but does not change the spermatozoal quality characteristics in subfertile men. J Androl. 1995 Sep-Oct;16(5):441-7.
  18. Iwasaki, A., and Gagnon, C. Formation of Reactive Oxygen Species in Spermatozoa of Infertile Patients. Fertility and Sterility, Feb. 1992; 57(2): 409-416.
  19. Kessopoulou E; Powers HJ; Sharma KK; Pearson MJ; Russell JM; Cooke ID; Barratt CL: A double-blind randomized placebo cross-over controlled trial using the antioxidant vitamin E to treat reactive oxygen species associated male infertility. Fertil Steril (United States), Oct 1995, 64(4) 825-31
  20. Lewin A, Lavon H: The effect of coenzyme Q10 on sperm motility and function. Mol Aspects Med. 1997;18 Suppl:S213-9.
  21. Lenzi A, Lombardo F, Sgro P, et al.: Use of carnitine therapy in selected cases of male factor infertility: a double-blind crossover trial. Fertil Steril. 2003 Feb;79(2):292-300.
  22. Lewis, S., Boyle, P.M., McKinney, K.A., Young, I.S., Thompson, W. Total Antioxidant Capacity of Seminal Plasma is Different in Fertile and Infertile Men. Fertility and Sterility, Oct. 1995; 64(4): 868-70.
  23. Marmar JL, Katz S, Praiss DE, DeBenedictis TJ. Semen zinc levels in infertile and postvasectomy patients and patients with prostatitis. Fertil Steril 1975:26:1057–63.
  24. Miura K, Matsuhashi M, Maki A, et alt.: [Clinical experience of Hachimijiogan for male infertility patients] Hinyokika Kiyo. 1984 Jan;30(1):97-102. Japanese.
  25. Netter A, Hartoma R, Nahoul K. Effect of zinc administration on plasma testosterone, dihydrotestosterone and sperm count. Arch Androl 1981;7:69–73.
  26. Nishizawa Y: [The effect of Chinese drug therapy on the patients with male infertility. 1. Concomitant administration of ninjinto and hachimijiogan on patients with male infertility] Hinyokika Kiyo. 1984 Feb;30(2):265-73. Japanese.
  27. Qian YX, Shen PJ, Xu RY, et alt.: Spermicidal effect in vitro by the active principle of garlic. Contraception. 1986 Sep;34(3):295-302.
  28. Rolf C, Cooper TG, Yeung CH, et alt.:. Antioxidant treatment of patients with asthenozoospermia or moderate oligoasthenozoospermia with high-dose vitamin C and vitamin E: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Hum Reprod. 1999 Apr;14(4):1028-33.
  29. Roseff SJ.: Improvement in sperm quality and function with French maritime pine tree bark extract. J Reprod Med. 2002 Oct;47(10):821-4.
  30. Scott R, MacPherson A, Yates RW, et alt.: The effect of oral selenium supplementation on human sperm motility. Br J Urol. 1998 Jul;82(1):76-80.
  31. Sinclair S: Male infertility: nutritional and environmental considerations. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Feb;5(1):28-38. Review.
  32. Takayama H, Konishi T, Kounami T, et alt.: Clinical effects of goshajinkigan for male infertility. Hinyokika Kiyo. 1984 Nov;30(11):1685-9. Japanese.
  33. Tsvetkov D. [The treatment of male infertility with the preparation vitaton] Khirurgiia (Sofiia). 1989;42(6):49-52. Bulgarian.
  34. Vezina D, Mauffette F, Roberts KD, et alt.: Selenium-vitamin E supplementation in infertile men. Effects on semen parameters and micronutrient levels and distribution. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1996 Summer;53(1-3):65-83.
  35. Wong WY, Merkus HM, Thomas CM, et alt.: Effects of folic acid and zinc sulfate on male factor subfertility: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 2002 Mar;77(3):491-8.
  36. Zheng RL, Zhang H: Effects of ferulic acid on fertile and asthenozoospermic infertile human sperm motility, viability, lipid peroxidation, and cyclic nucleotides. Free Radic Biol Med. 1997;22(4):581-6.

 
 
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